Revolutionary New Qubit Platform Might Remodel Quantum Computing


Qubit Platform Single Electron on Solid Neon

An illustration of the qubit platform fabricated from a single electron on stable neon. Researchers froze neon fuel right into a stable at very low temperatures, sprayed electrons from a light-weight bulb onto the stable, and trapped a single electron there to create a qubit. Credit score: Courtesy of Dafei Jin/Argonne Nationwide Laboratory

The digital gadget you might be utilizing to view this text is little doubt utilizing the bit, which might both be 0 or 1, as its primary unit of data. Nevertheless, scientists world wide are racing to develop a new type of pc primarily based on using quantum bits, or qubits, which might concurrently be 0 and 1 and will sooner or later remedy advanced issues past any classical supercomputers.

A analysis staff led by scientists on the U.S. Division of Vitality’s (DOE) Argonne Nationwide Laboratory, in shut collaboration with FAMU-FSU Faculty of Engineering Affiliate Professor of Mechanical Engineering Wei Guo, has introduced the creation of a brand new qubit platform that exhibits nice promise to be developed into future quantum computer systems. Their work is printed within the journal Nature.

“Quantum computer systems might be a revolutionary software for performing calculations which can be virtually unattainable for classical computer systems, however there’s nonetheless work to do to make them actuality,” stated Guo, a paper co-author. “With this analysis, we expect we have now a breakthrough that goes a great distance towards making qubits that assist understand this know-how’s potential.”

The staff created its qubit by freezing neon fuel right into a stable at very low temperatures, spraying electrons from a light-weight bulb onto the stable, and trapping a single electron there.

Wei Guo

FAMU-FSU Faculty of Engineering Affiliate Professor of Mechanical Engineering Wei Guo. Credit score: Florida State College

Whereas there are lots of selections of qubit varieties, the staff selected the best one — a single electron. Heating up a easy gentle filament corresponding to you would possibly discover in a toddler’s toy can simply shoot out a boundless provide of electrons.

One essential high quality for qubits is their means to stay in a simultaneous 0 or 1 state for a very long time, often called its “coherence time.” That point is restricted, and the restrict is decided by the best way qubits work together with their surroundings. Defects within the qubit system can considerably scale back the coherence time.

For that motive, the staff selected to entice an electron on an ultrapure stable neon floor in a vacuum. Neon is one among solely six inert parts, that means it doesn’t react with different parts.

“Due to this inertness, stable neon can function the cleanest doable stable in a vacuum to host and shield any qubits from being disrupted,” stated Dafei Jin, an Argonne scientist and the principal investigator of the mission.

Through the use of a chip-scale superconducting resonator — like a miniature microwave oven — the staff was capable of manipulate the trapped electrons, permitting them to learn and retailer data from the qubit, thus making it helpful to be used in future quantum computer systems.

Earlier analysis used liquid helium because the medium for holding electrons. That materials was simple to make freed from defects, however vibrations of the liquid-free floor may simply disturb the electron state and therefore compromise the efficiency of the qubit.

Stable neon gives a fabric with few defects that doesn’t vibrate like liquid helium. After constructing their platform, the staff carried out real-time qubit operations utilizing microwave photons on a trapped electron and characterised its quantum properties. These checks demonstrated that stable neon offered a sturdy surroundings for the electron with very low electrical noise to disturb it. Most significantly, the qubit attained coherence instances within the quantum state aggressive with different state-of-the-art qubits.

The simplicity of the qubit platform also needs to lend itself to easy, low-cost manufacturing, Jin stated.

The promise of quantum computing lies in the ability of this next-generation technology to calculate certain problems much faster than classical computers. Researchers aim to combine long coherence times with the ability of multiple qubits to link together — known as entanglement. Quantum computers thereby could find the answers to problems that would take a classical computer many years to resolve.

Consider a problem where researchers want to find the lowest energy configuration of a protein made of many amino acids. These amino acids can fold in trillions of ways that no classical computer has the memory to handle. With quantum computing, one can use entangled qubits to create a superposition of all folding configurations — providing the ability to check all possible answers at the same time and solve the problem more efficiently.

“Researchers would just need to do one calculation, instead of trying trillions of possible configurations,” Guo said.

For more on this research, see New Qubit Breakthrough Could Revolutionize Quantum Computing.

Reference: “Single electrons on solid neon as a solid-state qubit platform” by Xianjing Zhou, Gerwin Koolstra, Xufeng Zhang, Ge Yang, Xu Han, Brennan Dizdar, Xinhao Li, Ralu Divan, Wei Guo, Kater W. Murch, David I. Schuster and Dafei Jin, 4 May 2022, Nature.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04539-x

The team published its findings in a Nature article titled “Single electrons on solid neon as a solid-state qubit platform.” In addition to Jin, Argonne contributors include first author Xianjing Zhou, Xufeng Zhang, Xu Han, Xinhao Li, and Ralu Divan. Contributors from the University of Chicago were David Schuster and Brennan Dizdar. Other co-authors were Kater Murch of Washington University in St. Louis, Gerwin Koolstra of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Ge Yang of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Funding for the Argonne research primarily came from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Argonne’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Julian Schwinger Foundation for Physics Research. Guo is supported by the National Science Foundation and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

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